Turn Up Your Speakers
These Pages are High in Graphics
Please be patient as they load.



Click on thumbnails to view
the original Constitution documents.

Constitution Letter of Transmittal   Constitution of the United States Page One   Constitution of the United States Page Two

Constitution of the United States Page Three   Constitution of the United States Page Four  


      We the People of the United States, in order to form a more 
      perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, 
      provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and 
      secure the blessing of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do 
      ordain and establish the Constitution of the United States of 

      Article I.

      Sect. 1. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in 
      a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate 
      and a House of Representatives. 

      Sect. 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of members 
      chosen every second year by the people of the several states, and 
      the electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite 
      for electors of the most numerous branch of the state legislature. 
      No person shall be a representative who shall not have attained to 
      the age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of 
      the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an 
      inhabitant of that state in which he shall be chosen. 
      Representative and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the 
      several states which may be included within this Union, according 
      to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding 
      to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to 
      service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, 
      three-fifths of all other persons.  The actual enumeration shall 
      be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress 
      of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten 
      years in such manner as they shall be law direct.  The number of 
      representative shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but 
      each state shall have at least one representative; and until such 
      enumeration shall be made, the state of New Hampshire shall be 
      entitled to choose three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and 
      Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New-
      Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, 
      Virginia ten, North-Carolina five, South-Carolina five, and 
      Georgia three. 
      When vacancies happen in the representation from any state, the 
      Executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill 
      such vacancies. 
      The House of Representatives shall choose the Speaker and other 
      officers; and shall have the sole power of impeachment. 

      Sect. 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two 
      senators from each state chosen by the legislature thereof, for 
      six years and each senator shall have one vote. 
      Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the 
      first election, they hall be divided as equally as may be into 
      three classes.  The seats of the senators of the first class shall 
      be vacated at the expiration of the second year, of the second 
      class at the expiration of the fourth year, and of the third class 
      at the expiration of the sixth year, so that one-third may be 
      chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen by resignation, 
      or otherwise during the recess of the legislature of any state, 
      the Executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the 
      next meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such 
      No person shall be a senator who shall not have attained to the 
      age of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United 
      States, who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that 
      state for which he shall be chosen. 
      The Vice-President of the United States shall be President of the 
      Senate, but shall have no vote unless they be equally divided. 
      The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President 
      pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice-President, or when he 
      shall exercise the office of President of the United States. 
      The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments.  
      When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or 
      affirmation.  When the President of the United States is tried, 
      the Chief Justice shall preside: And no person shall be convicted 
      without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present. 
      Judgement in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to 
      removal from office and disqualification to hold and enjoy any 
      office of honor, trust or profit under the United States; but the 
      party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to 
      indictment, trial, judgment and punishment, according to law. 

      Sect. 4. The times, places and manner of holding elections for 
      senators and representatives, shall be prescribed in each state by 
      the legislature thereof: but the Congress may at any time by law 
      make or alter such regulations, except as to the places of 
      choosing Senators. 
      The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such 
      meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they 
      shall be law appoint a different day. 

      Sect. 5. Each house shall be the judge of the elections, returns 
      and qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each 
      shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may 
      adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the 
      attendance of absent members, in such manner, and under such 
      penalties as each house may provide. 

      Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its 
      members for disorderly behaviour, and with the concurrence of two-
      thirds, expel a member. 

      Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time 
      to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their 
      judgment require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members 
      either house on any question shall, at the desire of one-fifth of 
      those present be entered on the journal. 

      Neither house, during the session of Congress shall, without the 
      consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any 
      other place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting. 

      Sect. 6. The senators and representatives shall receive a 
      compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and 
      paid out of the treasury of the United States.  They shall in all 
      cases, except treason, felony and breach of the peace, be 
      privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of 
      their respective houses, and in going to and returning from the 
      same; and for any speech or debate in either house, they shall not 
      be questioned in any other place. 

      No senator or representative shall, during the time for which he 
      was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority 
      of the United States, which shall have been created, or the 
      emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time; and 
      no person holding any office under the United States, shall be a 
      member of either house during his continuance in office. 

      Sect. 7. All bill for raising revenue shall originate in the house 
      of representative; but the senate may propose or concur with 
      amendments as on other bills. 

      Every bill which shall have passed the house of representatives 
      and the senate, shall, before it become a law, be presented to the 
      president of the United States; if he approve he shall sign it, 
      but if not he shall return it, with his objections to that house 
      in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections 
      at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it.  If after 
      such reconsideration two-thirds of that house shall agree to pass 
      the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the 
      other house, by which is shall likewise be reconsidered, and if 
      approved by two-thirds of that house, it shall become a law.  But 
      in all such cases the votes of both houses shall be determined by 
      yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against 
      the bill shall be entered on the journal of each house 
      respectively.  If any bill shall not be returned by the President 
      within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been 
      presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he 
      had signed it, unless the Congress by their adjournment prevent 
      its return, in which case it shall not be a law. 

      Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of the 
      Senate and House of Representative may be necessary (except on a 
      question of adjournment) shall be presented to the President of 
      the United States; and before the same shall take effect, shall be 
      approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by 
      two-thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according 
      to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill. 

      Sect. 8. The Congress shall have power     

      To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the 
      debts and provide for the common defence and general welfare of 
      the United States; but all duties, imposts and excises shall be 
      uniform throughout the United States. 

      To borrow money on the credit of the United States; 

      To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several 
      states, and with the Indian tribes; 

      To establish an uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws 
      on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States; 

      To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, 
      and fix the standard of weights and measures; 

      To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and 
      current coin of the United States; 

      To establish post offices and post roads; 

      To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing 
      for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to 
      their respective writings and discoveries; 

      To constitute tribunals inferior to the supreme court; 

      To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high 
      seas, and offences against the law of nations; 

      To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make 
      rules concerning captures on land and water; 

      To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that 
      use shall be for a longer term than two years; 

      To provide and maintain a navy; 

      To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and 
      naval forces; 

      To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of 
      the union, suppress insurrections and repel invasions.; 

      To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the militia, 
      and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the 
      service of the United States, reserving to the States 
      respectively, the appointment of the officers, and the authority 
      of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by 

      To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever, over 
      such district (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession 
      of particular States, and the acceptance of Congress, become the 
      seat of the government of the United States, and to exercise like 
      authority over all places purchased by the consent of the 
      legislature of the states in which the same shall be, for the 
      erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dockyards, and other 
      needful buildings; -And 

      To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying 
      into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested 
      by the Constitution in the government of the United States, or in 
      any department or officer thereof. 

      Sect. 9. The migration or importation of such persons as any of 
      the states now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be 
      prohibited by the Congress prior to the year one thousand eight 
      hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such 
      importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each person. 

      The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, 
      unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety 
      require it. 

      No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed. 

      No capitation, or other direct, tax shall be laid, unless in 
      proportion to the census or enumeration herein before directed to 
      be taken. 

      No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any state.  
      No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or 
      revenue to the ports of one state over those of another: nor shall 
      vessels bound to, or from, one state, be obliged to enter, clear, 
      or pay duties in another. 

      No money shall be drawn from the treasury, but in consequence of 
      appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of 
      the receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be 
      published from time to time. 

      No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States:--And 
      no person holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, 
      without the consent of the Congress, accept of any present, 
      emolument, office, or title, of any kind whatever, from any king, 
      prince, or foreign state. 

      Sect. 10. No state shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or 
      confederation; grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; 
      emit bills of credit; make any thing but gold and silver coin a 
      tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of attainder, ex post 
      facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant 
      any title of nobility. 

      No state shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any 
      imposts or duties on imports or exports, except what may be 
      absolutely necessary for executing its inspection laws; and the 
      net produce of all duties and imposts, laid by any state on 
      imports or exports, shall be for the use of the Treasury of the 
      United States; all such laws shall be subject to the revision and 
      control of the Congress.  No state shall, without the consent of 
      Congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops, or ships of war in 
      time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another 
      state, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually 
      invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay. 

      Article II.

      Sect. 1.  The executive power shall be vested in a president of 
      the United States of America.  He shall hold his office during the 
      term of four years, and, together with the vice-president, chosen 
      for the same term, be elected as follows. 

      Each state shall appoint, in such manner as the legislature 
      thereof may direct, a number of electors, equal to the whole 
      number of senators and representatives to which the state may be 
      entitled in the Congress: but no senator or representative, or 
      person holding an office of trust or profit under the United 
      States, shall be appointed an elector. 

      The electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by 
      ballot for two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an 
      inhabitant of the same state with themselves.  And they shall make 
      a list of all the persons voted for, and of the number of votes 
      for each; which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit 
      sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, 
      directed to the president of the senate.  The president of the 
      senate shall, in the presence of the senate and house of 
      representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall 
      then be counted.  The person having the greatest number of votes 
      shall be the president, if such number be a majority of the whole 
      number of electors appointed; and if there be more than one who 
      have such majority, and have am equal number of electors 
      appointed; and if there be more than one who have such majority, 
      and have an equal number of votes, then the house of 
      representatives shall immediately choose by ballot one of them for 
      president; and if no person have a majority, then from the five 
      highest on the list the said house shall in like manner choose the 
      president.  But in choosing the president, the votes shall be 
      taken by states, the representation from each state having one 
      vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or 
      members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the 
      states shall be necessary to a choice.  In every case, after the 
      choice of the president, the person having the greatest number of 
      votes of the electors shall be the vice-president.  But if there 
      should remain two or more who have equal votes, the senate shall 
      choose from them by ballot the vice-president. 

      The Congress may determine the time of the choosing the electors, 
      and the day on which they shall give their votes; which day shall 
      be the same throughout the United States. 

      No person except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the 
      United States, at the time of the adoption of this constitution, 
      shall be eligible to the office of president; neither shall any 
      person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to 
      the age of thirty-five years, and been fourteen years a resident 
      within the United States. 

      In case of the removal of the president from office, or his death, 
      resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of 
      the said office, the same shall devolve on the vice-president, and 
      the Congress may by law provide for the case of removal, death, 
      resignation or inability, both of the president and vice-
      president, declaring what officer shall then act as president, and 
      such officer shall act accordingly, until the disability be 
      removed, or a president be elected. 

      The president shall, at stated times, receive for his services, a 
      compensation, which shall neither be encreased nor diminished 
      during the period for which he shall have been elected, and he 
      shall not receive within that period any other emolument from the 
      United States, or any of them. 

      Before he enter on the execution of his office, he shall take the 
      following oath or affirmation: 

      "I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute 
      the office of president of the United States, and will to the best 
      of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the constitution of 
      the United States." 

      Sect. 2. The president shall be commander in chief of the army and 
      navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several 
      States, when called into the actual service of the United States; 
      he may require the opinion, in writing of the principal officer in 
      each of the executive departments, upon any subject relating to 
      the duties of their respective offices, and he shall have power to 
      grant reprieves and pardons for offences against the United 
      States, except in cases of impeachment. 

      He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the 
      senate, to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the senators 
      present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the advice 
      and consent of the senate, shall appoint ambassadors, other public 
      ministers and consuls, judges of the supreme court, and all other 
      officers of the United States, whose appointments are not herein 
      otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by law.  
      But the Congress may by law vest the appointment of such inferior 
      officers, as they think proper, in the president alone, in the 
      courts of law, or in the heads of departments. 

      The president shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may 
      happen during the recess of the senate, by granting commissions 
      which shall expire at the end of their session. 

      Sect. 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress 
      information of the state of the union, and recommend to their 
      consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and 
      expedient; he may, on extraordinary occasions, convene both 
      houses, or either of them, and in case of disagreement between 
      them, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them 
      to such time as he shall think proper; he shall receive 
      ambassadors and other public ministers; he shall take care that 
      the laws be faithfully executed, and shall commission all the 
      officers of the United States. 

      Sect. 4. The president, vice-president and all civil officers of 
      the United States, shall be removed from office on impeachment 
      for, and conviction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and 

      Article III.

      Sect. 1.  The judicial power of the United States shall be vested 
      in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress 
      may from time to time ordain and establish.  The judges, both of 
      the Supreme and inferior courts, shall hold their offices during 
      good behavior, and shall, at stated time, receive for their 
      services a compensation which shall not be diminished during their 
      continuance in office. 

      Sect. 2.
      1. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and 
      equity, arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United 
      States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their 
      authority; to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public 
      ministers, and consuls; to all cases of admiralty and maritime 
      jurisdiction; to controversies to which the United States shall be 
      a party; to controversies between two or more States, between a 
      State and citizens of another State, between citizens of different 
      States, between citizens of the same State claiming lands under 
      grants of different States, and between a State or the citizens 
      thereof, and foreign states, citizens, or subjects. 

      2. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and 
      consuls, and those in which a State shall be a party, the Supreme 
      Court shall have original jurisdiction.  In all the other cases 
      before mentioned, the Supreme Court shall have appellate 
      jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions and 
      under such regulations as the Congress shall make. 

      3. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall 
      be by jury; and such trial shall be held in the State where the 
      said crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed 
      within any State the trial shall be at such place or places as the 
      Congress may by law have directed. 

      Sect. 3.

      1.  Treason against the United States shall consist only in 
      levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving 
      them aid and comfort.  No person shall be convicted of treason 
      unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or 
      on confession in open court. 

      2.  The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of 
      treason, but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of 
      blood, or forfeiture except during the life of the person 

      Article IV

      Sect. 1. Full faith and credit shall be given in each State to the 
      public act, records, and judicial proceedings of every other 
      State.  And the Congress may, by general laws, prescribe the 
      manner in which such acts, records, and proceedings shall be 
      proved, and the effect thereof. 

      Sect. 2.

      1. The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all privileges 
      and immunities of citizens in the several States. 

      2. A person charged in any State with treason, felony, or other 
      crime, who shall flee from justice, and be found in another State, 
      shall, on demand of the executive authority of the State from 
      which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having 
      jurisdiction of the crime. 

      3. No person held to service or labor in one State, under the laws 
      thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law 
      or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labor, 
      but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such 
      service or labor may be due. 

      Sect. 3.

      1.  New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; 
      but no new State shall be formed or erected within the 
      jurisdiction of any other State, nor any State be formed by the 
      junction of two or more States, or parts of States, without the 
      consent of the legislatures of the States concerned as well as of 
      the Congress. 

      2.  The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all 
      needful rules and regulations respecting the territory or other 
      property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this 
      Constitution shall be so construed as to prejudice any claims of 
      the United States, or of any particular State. 

      Sect. 4.  The United States shall guarantee to every State in this 
      Union a republican form of government, and shall protect each of 
      them against invasion; and on application of the legislature, or 
      of the executive (when the legislature cannot be convened), 
      against domestic violence. 

      Article V.

      The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both House shall deem it 
      necessary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on 
      the application of the legislatures of two-thirds of the several 
      States, shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which, 
      in either case, shall be valid, to all intents and purposes, as 
      part of this Constitution, when ratified by the legislatures of 
      three-fourths of the several States, or by conventions in three-
      fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may 
      be proposed by the Congress; provided [that no amendment which may 
      be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight 
      shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the 
      ninth section of the first Article;] and that no State, without 
      its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the 

      Article VI.

      Sect. 1.  All debts contracted and engagements entered into, 
      before the adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid 
      against the United States under this Constitution, as under the 

      Sect. 2.  This Constitution, and the laws of the United States 
      which shall be made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made, 
      or which shall be made, under the authority of  the United States, 
      shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every 
      State shall be bound thereby, anything in the constitution or laws 
      of any State to the contrary notwithstanding. 

      Sect. 3.  The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and 
      the members of the several State legislatures, and all executive 
      and judicial officers, both of the United States and of the 
      several States, shall be bound, by oath or affirmation, to support 
      this Constitution; but no religious test shall ever be required as 
      a qualification to any office or public trust under the United 

      Article VII. 

      The ratification of the conventions of nine States shall be 
      sufficient for the establishment of this Constitution between the 
      States so ratifying the same. 

      Done in Convention, by the unanimous consent of the States 
      present, the seventeenth day of September, in the year of our Lord 
      one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven, and of the 
      Independence of the United States of America the twelfth.  In 
      Witness whereof, we have hereunto subscribed our names. 

      Attest:  William Jackson, Secretary
               George Washington

       John Langdon
       Nicholas Gilman

       Nathaniel Gorham
       Rufus King

       NEW YORK
       Alexander Hamilton

       William Livingston
       David Brearley
       William Paterson
       Jonathan Dayton

       Benjamin Franklin
       Thomas Mifflin
       Robert Morris
       George Clymer
       Thomas Fitzsimons
       Jared Ingersoll
       James Wilson
       Gouverneur Morris

       George Read
       Gunning Bedford, Jr.
       John Dickinson
       Richard Bassett
       Jacob Broom

       James McHenry
       Dan of St. Thomas Jennifer
       Daniel Carroll

       John Blair
       James Madison, Jr.

       William Blount
       Richard Dobbs Spaight
       Hugh Williamson

       John Rutledge
       Charles Cotesworth Pinckney
       Charles Pinckney
       Pierce Butler

       William Few
       Abraham Baldwin

In Association with Amazon



For More Patriotic Titles Click Here



Send this page to a friend or colleague:




Copyright ©Emotions Greeting Cards a division of VH Productions 2000-2002


www. EmotionsCards .com


Amendments and Bill of Rights